Linux 性能优化工具包 sysstat 命令

2018年8月29日14:27:15Linux 性能优化工具包 sysstat 命令已关闭评论 6
摘要

sysstat是一个软件包,包含监测系统性能及效率的一组工具,这些工具对于我们收集系统性能数据。

1.sysstat 介绍

1.1. /etc/cron.d/sysstat

Linux 下的性能分析,少不了要使用 sysstat 工具包中的命令。同时 sysstat 服务会自动每个10分钟收集一次系统状态信息,并将它们存储到 /var/log/sa目录下。每天一个文件,文件名分别是sa01, sa02,... sa30..

Linux 性能优化工具包 sysstat 命令

[root@localhost sa]# pwd

/var/log/sa

[root@localhost sa]# ls

sa01 sa03 sa05 sa06 sa07 sa08 sa09 sa10 sa11 sa12 sa13 sa14 sa15 sa25 sa26 sa27 sa28 sa29 sa30 sar25

自动收集系统信息,是通过 /etc/cron.d/sysstat 来实现的:

[root@localhost sa]# cat /etc/cron.d/sysstat

# Run system activity accounting tool every 10 minutes

*/10 * * * * root /usr/lib/sa/sa1 1 1

# 0 * * * * root /usr/lib/sa/sa1 600 6 &

# Generate a daily summary of process accounting at 23:53

53 23 * * * root /usr/lib/sa/sa2 -A

上面标示每个10分钟,运行一次 /usr/lib/sa/sa1 1 1, 该命令 man sa1:

sa1 - Collect and store binary data in the system activity daily data file.

SYNOPSIS:/usr/lib/sa/sa1 [ --boot | interval count ]

sa1 收集到的是 binary data. 所以 sa2 -A 负责将当天的二进制文件转换成文本文件。

sa2 - Write a daily report in the /var/log/sa directory

其中的收集信息的频率(10分钟一次)我们可以根据需要进行修改。

1.2. /etc/sysconfig/sysstat

/var/log/sa/目录下的文件保存时间等相关配置存在于文件 /etc/sysconfig/sysstat中:

[root@localhost ~]# cat /etc/sysconfig/sysstat

# sysstat-9.0.4 configuration file.

# How long to keep log files (in days).

# If value is greater than 28, then log files are kept in

# multiple directories, one for each month.

HISTORY=28

# Compress (using gzip or bzip2) sa and sar files older than (in days):

COMPRESSAFTER=31

# Parameters for the system activity data collector (see sadc manual page)

# which are used for the generation of log files.

SADC_OPTIONS="-S DISK"

# Compression program to use.

ZIP="bzip2"

其中的 HISTORY=28 表示最多保存28天的数据。保存时间,我们可以根据需要进行修改。

1.3. 确保 sysstat 服务启动:

[root@localhost ~]# chkconfig --level 35 sysstat on

[root@localhost ~]# chkconfig |grep sysstat

sysstat 0:off 1:on 2:on 3:on 4:on 5:on 6:off

上面是 sysstat 服务运行的知识。下面是 sysstat 工具包中的命令行如何使用收集到的信息,来了解系统的运行情况。

2. sysstat 工具包中的命令

sysstat工具包中有很多的分析命令,常用的有:sar, iostat, mpstat(multi processor stat), pidstat, vmstat等等。

其中的sar命令尤其强大,它一个命令就能够收集系统CPU, 内存,磁盘,网络,进程切换,swap, 甚至文件inode,等个方面的信息。sar 的应用比较多,而且也比较复杂,数据更为精确。

2.1 sar 命令

1)sar -u 查看CPU信息:

sar -u, sar -u ALL, sar -u 1 5, sar -u ALL 1 5

[root@localhost ~]# sar -u 1 2

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:02:27 AM CPU %user %nice %system %iowait %steal %idle

11:02:28 AM all 0.99 0.00 2.97 0.00 0.00 96.04

11:02:29 AM all 0.00 0.00 3.03 0.00 0.00 96.97

Average: all 0.50 0.00 3.00 0.00 0.00 96.50

2)sar -r, sar -R 查看内存信息:

sar -r, sar -R, sar -r 1 5, sar -R 1 5

[root@localhost ~]# sar -r 1 2

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:05:31 AM kbmemfree kbmemused %memused kbbuffers kbcached kbcommit %commit

11:05:32 AM 824392 206156 20.00 71556 74584 82316 3.96

11:05:33 AM 824392 206156 20.00 71556 74584 82316 3.96

Average: 824392 206156 20.00 71556 74584 82316 3.96

[root@localhost ~]# sar -R 1 2

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:05:56 AM frmpg/s bufpg/s campg/s

11:05:57 AM -11.11 0.00 0.00

11:05:58 AM 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: -5.56 0.00 0.00

3)sar -S, sar -W 查看 swap:

sar -S, sar -S 1 5, sar -W, sar -W 1 5. sar -S 查看的是swap空间的使用情况,sar -W 是每秒发生的swap/page情况

[root@localhost ~]# sar -S

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

09:43:28 AM LINUX RESTART

09:50:02 AM kbswpfree kbswpused %swpused kbswpcad %swpcad

10:00:01 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

10:10:02 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

10:20:01 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

10:30:01 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

10:40:02 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

10:50:01 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

11:00:01 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

Average: 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

[root@localhost ~]# sar -S 1 5

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:07:29 AM kbswpfree kbswpused %swpused kbswpcad %swpcad

11:07:30 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

11:07:31 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

11:07:32 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

11:07:33 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

11:07:34 AM 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

Average: 1048572 0 0.00 0 0.00

[root@localhost ~]# sar -W

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

09:43:28 AM LINUX RESTART

09:50:02 AM pswpin/s pswpout/s

10:00:01 AM 0.00 0.00

10:10:02 AM 0.00 0.00

10:20:01 AM 0.00 0.00

10:30:01 AM 0.00 0.00

10:40:02 AM 0.00 0.00

10:50:01 AM 0.00 0.00

11:00:01 AM 0.00 0.00

Average: 0.00 0.00

[root@localhost ~]# sar -W 1 5

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:09:51 AM pswpin/s pswpout/s

11:09:52 AM 0.00 0.00

11:09:53 AM 0.00 0.00

11:09:54 AM 0.00 0.00

11:09:55 AM 0.00 0.00

11:09:56 AM 0.00 0.00

Average: 0.00 0.00

4)sar -b, sar -B 查看磁盘IO:

sar -b, sar -b 1 5, sar -B, sar -B 1 5. sar -b 查看磁盘tps(iops);sar -B 主要查看每秒磁盘 page/fault

[root@localhost ~]# sar -b

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

09:43:28 AM LINUX RESTART

09:50:02 AM tps rtps wtps bread/s bwrtn/s

10:00:01 AM 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.11

10:10:02 AM 0.06 0.03 0.03 1.41 0.43

10:20:01 AM 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.11

10:30:01 AM 0.01 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.17

10:40:02 AM 0.16 0.10 0.06 4.84 0.89

10:50:01 AM 18.11 17.81 0.31 334.52 26.32

11:00:01 AM 0.11 0.09 0.02 5.12 0.34

11:10:01 AM 0.02 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.17

Average: 2.31 2.25 0.06 43.13 3.56

[root@localhost ~]# sar -b 1 5

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:12:58 AM tps rtps wtps bread/s bwrtn/s

11:12:59 AM 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:13:00 AM 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:13:01 AM 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:13:02 AM 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:13:03 AM 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

[root@localhost ~]# sar -B

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

09:43:28 AM LINUX RESTART

09:50:02 AM pgpgin/s pgpgout/s fault/s majflt/s pgfree/s pgscank/s pgscand/s pgsteal/s %vmeff

10:00:01 AM 0.00 0.05 3.29 0.00 0.86 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:10:02 AM 0.71 0.22 12.02 0.00 3.16 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:20:01 AM 0.00 0.05 3.43 0.00 0.85 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:30:01 AM 0.00 0.09 3.28 0.00 0.83 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:40:02 AM 2.42 0.44 59.48 0.02 14.86 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:50:01 AM 167.26 13.16 1580.24 0.09 336.45 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:00:01 AM 2.56 0.17 15.00 0.02 3.95 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:10:01 AM 0.00 0.09 25.18 0.00 9.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: 21.57 1.78 212.26 0.02 46.20 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

[root@localhost ~]# sar -B 1 5

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:13:09 AM pgpgin/s pgpgout/s fault/s majflt/s pgfree/s pgscank/s pgscand/s pgsteal/s %vmeff

11:13:10 AM 0.00 0.00 45.45 0.00 59.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:13:11 AM 0.00 0.00 38.38 0.00 59.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:13:12 AM 0.00 0.00 30.30 0.00 59.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:13:13 AM 0.00 0.00 30.30 0.00 59.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:13:14 AM 0.00 0.00 30.00 0.00 59.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00Average: 0.00 0.00 34.88 0.00 59.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

5)sar -d 查看磁盘IO活动:

[root@localhost ~]# sar -d

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

09:43:28 AM LINUX RESTART

09:50:02 AM DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util

10:00:01 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:00:01 AM dev8-0 0.01 0.00 0.11 12.80 0.00 2.00 1.60 0.00

10:10:02 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:10:02 AM dev8-0 0.06 1.41 0.43 29.62 0.00 5.86 5.30 0.03

10:20:01 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:20:01 AM dev8-0 0.01 0.00 0.11 12.80 0.00 2.80 2.60 0.00

10:30:01 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:30:01 AM dev8-0 0.01 0.00 0.17 14.86 0.00 3.29 2.14 0.00

10:40:02 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:40:02 AM dev8-0 0.16 4.84 0.89 35.13 0.00 7.26 6.59 0.11

10:50:01 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:50:01 AM dev8-0 18.11 334.52 26.32 19.92 0.05 3.15 2.98 5.40

11:00:01 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:00:01 AM dev8-0 0.11 5.12 0.34 50.62 0.00 20.66 13.55 0.15

11:10:01 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:10:01 AM dev8-0 0.02 0.00 0.17 11.56 0.00 1.67 1.56 0.00

Average: dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: dev8-0 2.31 43.13 3.56 20.25 0.01 3.29 3.08 0.71

[root@localhost ~]# sar -d 1 3

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:16:29 AM DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util

11:16:30 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:16:30 AM dev8-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:16:30 AM DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util

11:16:31 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:16:31 AM dev8-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:16:31 AM DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util

11:16:32 AM dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:16:32 AM dev8-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: DEV tps rd_sec/s wr_sec/s avgrq-sz avgqu-sz await svctm %util

Average: dev11-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: dev8-0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

6)sar -n { keyword [,...] | ALL } 查看网络:

Possible keywords are DEV, EDEV, NFS, NFSD, SOCK, IP, EIP, ICMP, EICMP, TCP, ETCP, UDP, SOCK6, IP6, EIP6, ICMP6, EICMP6 and UDP6.

你想查看网络哪个方面的信息,就将 keyword 换成上面的那个选项。

sar -n DEV 查看网络设备上的数据包收发情况,sar -n EDEV 查看网络设备上发生的数据包收发错误的情况,sar -n DEV 1 5, sar -n EDEV 1 5.

[root@localhost ~]# sar -n DEV 1 2

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:20:05 AM IFACE rxpck/s txpck/s rxkB/s txkB/s rxcmp/s txcmp/s rxmcst/s

11:20:06 AM lo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:06 AM eth0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:06 AM eth1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:06 AM IFACE rxpck/s txpck/s rxkB/s txkB/s rxcmp/s txcmp/s rxmcst/s

11:20:07 AM lo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:07 AM eth0 2.02 3.03 0.12 0.70 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:07 AM eth1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: IFACE rxpck/s txpck/s rxkB/s txkB/s rxcmp/s txcmp/s rxmcst/sAverage: lo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: eth0 1.01 1.52 0.06 0.35 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: eth1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

[root@localhost ~]# sar -n EDEV 1 2

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:20:16 AM IFACE rxerr/s txerr/s coll/s rxdrop/s txdrop/s txcarr/s rxfram/s rxfifo/s txfifo/s

11:20:17 AM lo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:17 AM eth0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:17 AM eth1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:17 AM IFACE rxerr/s txerr/s coll/s rxdrop/s txdrop/s txcarr/s rxfram/s rxfifo/s txfifo/s

11:20:18 AM lo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:18 AM eth0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:18 AM eth1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: IFACE rxerr/s txerr/s coll/s rxdrop/s txdrop/s txcarr/s rxfram/s rxfifo/s txfifo/s

Average: lo 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: eth0 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: eth1 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

sar -n TCP, sar -n TCP 1 5 查看TCP;sar -n ETCP 查看tcp错误; sar -n SOCK, sar -n SOCK 1 5 查看socket;

7)sar -q 查看系统load负载:

[root@localhost ~]# sar -q

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

09:43:28 AM LINUX RESTART

09:50:02 AM runq-sz plist-sz ldavg-1 ldavg-5 ldavg-15

10:00:01 AM 0 66 0.00 0.02 0.09

10:10:02 AM 0 67 0.00 0.00 0.03

10:20:01 AM 0 67 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:30:01 AM 0 67 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:40:02 AM 0 78 0.00 0.00 0.00

10:50:01 AM 0 76 0.00 0.16 0.14

11:00:01 AM 0 80 0.00 0.02 0.06

11:10:01 AM 0 80 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:20:01 AM 0 81 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: 0 74 0.00 0.02 0.04

[root@localhost ~]# sar -q 1 3

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:25:44 AM runq-sz plist-sz ldavg-1 ldavg-5 ldavg-15

11:25:45 AM 0 80 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:25:46 AM 0 80 0.00 0.00 0.00

11:25:47 AM 0 80 0.00 0.00 0.00

Average: 0 80 0.00 0.00 0.00

runq-sz 表示在CPU上排队等待执行的任务;plist-sz系统所有任务。

8)sar -w 每秒进程创建 和 进程切换:

[root@localhost ~]# sar -w

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

09:43:28 AM LINUX RESTART

09:50:02 AM proc/s cswch/s

10:00:01 AM 0.01 25.14

10:10:02 AM 0.04 25.58

10:20:01 AM 0.01 25.01

10:30:01 AM 0.01 25.40

10:40:02 AM 0.19 27.64

10:50:01 AM 4.02 120.10

11:00:01 AM 0.04 41.77

11:10:01 AM 0.09 38.55

11:20:01 AM 0.23 50.63

Average: 0.51 42.18

[root@localhost ~]# sar -w 1 4

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:28:07 AM proc/s cswch/s

11:28:08 AM 0.00 80.39

11:28:09 AM 0.00 90.82

11:28:10 AM 0.00 45.45

11:28:11 AM 0.00 60.00

Average: 0.00 69.17

9)sar -W 每秒swap/page:

[root@localhost ~]# sar -W

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

09:43:28 AM LINUX RESTART

09:50:02 AM pswpin/s pswpout/s

10:00:01 AM 0.00 0.00

10:10:02 AM 0.00 0.00

10:20:01 AM 0.00 0.00

10:30:01 AM 0.00 0.00

10:40:02 AM 0.00 0.00

10:50:01 AM 0.00 0.00

11:00:01 AM 0.00 0.00

11:10:01 AM 0.00 0.00

11:20:01 AM 0.00 0.00

Average: 0.00 0.00

[root@localhost ~]# sar -W 1 4

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:28:50 AM pswpin/s pswpout/s

11:28:51 AM 0.00 0.00

11:28:52 AM 0.00 0.00

11:28:53 AM 0.00 0.00

11:28:54 AM 0.00 0.00

Average: 0.00 0.00

10)sar -v 查看文件inode使用,缓存情况:

[root@localhost ~]# sar -v

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

09:43:28 AM LINUX RESTART

09:50:02 AM dentunusd file-nr inode-nr pty-nr

10:00:01 AM 1963 160 7250 0

10:10:02 AM 1988 160 7266 0

10:20:01 AM 1988 160 7266 0

10:30:01 AM 1988 160 7266 0

10:40:02 AM 2126 480 7418 5

10:50:01 AM 40677 448 43933 5

11:00:01 AM 40772 480 43952 5

11:10:01 AM 40894 480 43952 5

11:20:01 AM 41281 480 43953 5

Average: 19297 334 23584 3

[root@localhost ~]# sar -v 1 3

Linux 2.6.32-504.el6.i686 (localhost.localdomain) 10/20/2015 _i686_ (1 CPU)

11:29:49 AM dentunusd file-nr inode-nr pty-nr

11:29:50 AM 41488 480 43945 5

11:29:51 AM 41488 480 43945 5

11:29:52 AM 41488 480 43945 5

Average: 41488 480 43945 5

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